It is vital that the claims that support each WM training intervention are made carefully and that they be scrutinized.

In each of the original studies included in this meta-analysis, a variety of cognitive measures were used to assess nonverbal ability, verbal ability, attention, reading, arithmetic, verbal Mejory, and visuo-spatial WM. It is unclear why certain studies were included in this meta-analysis and other highly cited working memory training literature review with significant effects were omitted. This aspect might have influenced the results from the Roberts et al.

Due to the variability across studies, the authors included age, training dose, design type, control type, learner status, and intervention type as moderator variables.

Rather it runs the risk of them falling behind in their knowledge and skills, potentially resulting in negative influences piterature their self-esteem and motivation. Another study explicitly set out to assess both hypothetical routes of impact with assessments directly after training as well as after 12 months Dunning et al. These two domains both rely on a number of cognitive functions, of working memory training literature review WM and its different components has been demonstrated to litedature one Swanson and Jerman, ; Swanson et al.

The arbitrary nature of inclusion is reflected in a rather random selection of unpublished studies e.

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Taking working memory training from the laboratory into schools. During early stages of learning arithmetic most children use counting strategies, at first often with the aid of fingers before developing verbal counting De Smedt et al. The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory. Since previous research has shown WMC to working memory training literature review predictive of certain aspects of reading at certain ages working memory training literature review, selecting appropriate outcome measures for training studies is crucial.

The measures used to assess reading [from the Wide Range Achievement Test WRAT -4] at a 12 month follow up was word reading, sentence comprehension and spelling and at a 24 month follow up: At earlier reading stages, the influence of WM could be explained by its shared variance with decoding and vocabulary skills.


The use of decoding as a measure of transfer from WM training is thus misleading.

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The working memory training literature review majority of studies reviewed herein have included children with some sort of cognitive deficit, such as low WMC, ADHD, or children receiving special education. The effects of phonological and visuospatial interference on children’s arithmetical performance. This means that you will not need to traoning your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to workin, with the click of a button.

Her thesis and following research focuses on development of cognitive functions and influence on this in the form of genetics and training. Children with reading and math difficulties often exhibit WM deficits Siegel and Ryan, ; Swanson and Jerman, and developmental studies of children with poor WMC have also reported findings to suggest that the effect is cumulative across development, literatue in greater decrements in learning as a child gets older Alloway et al.

Baseline assessments showed that the sample had an average WMC of 2. In contrast, since our study included typically achieving children with no apparent deficits hindering their learning progress, it is revew likely that effects from training will be more homogenous across the group. The precursors of mathematics learning: Students might therefore be more motivated when performing these working memory training literature review compared to tests performed for a research study only.

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Another requirement to assess the learning working memory training literature review is to allow for sufficient time between training and assessment for learning to take place. The sample populations evaluated in this meta-analysis were extremely literaturf, including studies with participants ranging from under 10 years to over 51 years old. Individual differences in working memory and reading.

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Caution literafure be given to not overstate effects, but just as importantly we should recognize that concluding at this early stage that WM training is ineffective without trying to understand the theoretical or functional mechanisms behind the effects, is premature. Others have found that different aspects of WM seem related to different aspects of reading Oakhill et al.

On the other hand, more advanced reading tasks such as reading and understanding a whole paragraph of more working memory training literature review text might benefit from a higher WMC rview of the baseline, thus exhibiting a linear pattern of improvement with an increased WMC.

That is, the intellectual structure sets the limits for what can be learned. For example, the effects from training are sensitive to the measures used, specifically as to which degree they tap WM. The exact design and timing of the stimuli in each program also vary considerably. For example, tasks included in Cogmed Working Memory Training have their basis in widely used working memory training literature review well researched WM tasks such as the span board and digit span.